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Wet-into-wet

March 23, 2012

Dear Artist,

You might paint wet-into-wet for several reasons. Lubrication is one of them. Just as an engine runs better with a bit of oil on its parts, so does a painting. Indeed, oil painting works its wonders because the oil medium is slippery and slow to dry and thus passages can be more easily blended, gradated, softened, even removed. Titian, one of oil's earliest technicians and first masters, declared it to be the greatest discovery in all of art.

Another reason to paint wet-into-wet is the compounding of techniques. Even if you're habituated to fast drying acrylics, this doesn't mean you have to be victimized by their limitations. Popular slow-drying acrylics invite the use of lots of paint and permit all kinds of painterly outrageousness in realism and abstraction alike.

A rewarding technique is to really "grease up" (put on an overall layer of slow-drying medium as surface lubricant). In acrylic, you might try using Golden Open Medium as imprimatura. No, I'm not on Golden's payroll. The lubricant layer can be clear or variously tinted and put on with a rag, brush or any number of other tools. After this, your colours slip and slide and mingle with abandon. While requiring above average skill in handling, they can add painterly efficiency, happy accidents, sly gradations and arresting effects.

Acrylic painters in particular need not give drying time a second thought. Even the slowest drying acrylics can be force-dried in hours or less. I find the most fun can be had with the yin and yang between wet and dry. When impasto areas dry they are easily scumbled (generally lighter, brighter colours dry brushed over the slubs and bumps of darker zones). Then, after further drying and further grease-up, it's back to wet-into-wet for fresh new passages.

Perhaps the greatest reason to work wet-into-wet is to achieve a professional look. You might have noticed that the oils, acrylics and watercolours we really love to look at were at one time really wet ones. Further, many pros prefer a fresh look that belies the effort they've put into their work. By encouraging more fluid, cursive and longer flourishes, the professional's prowess is revealed. After that, little dry strokes are not as much fun anymore.

Best regards,

Robert

PS: "The thicker you paint, the more it flows." (John Singer Sargent)

Esoterica: Lack of freshness and flow in a painting can often be traced to miserliness on the palette. Sargent advocated, "No small dabs of colour--you want plenty of paint to paint with." Working on a pre-lubed surface with gobs of unsullied paint, Sargent moved in an efficient order: "If you begin with the middle-tone and work up from it toward the darks so that you deal last with your highest lights and darkest darks, you avoid false accents." With wet-into-wet you stand a better chance of maintaining a harmonious whole. Oh, and by the way, too many wet-into-wet strokes and you get "mud, mud, glorious mud."





Mud and mothercolour
by Barbara Youtz, New Harbor, ME, USA


Those "too many wet-into-wet strokes" that give you mud have always been a plague to watercolorists and Edge of the Ocean<br>watercolour painting by Barbara Youtz Edge of the Ocean
watercolour painting
yet to oil painters they are good according to your quote from Sargent. Is this the same thing as a "Mothercolor"?

(RG note) Thanks, Barbara. Mud happens when a variety of colours (usually three or more) are agitated together to produce an ominous tone like the bottom of your brush-cleaning bucket. Mothercolour is something different. This is one colour which is judiciously added to most or all of the other colours on a palette or in a composition, leading to a harmonious whole. Mothercolour generally works best with less than three pigments. A good exercise is to take a small palette of say three primaries plus black and white and add varying amounts of yellow ochre independently to all. You will see remarkably beautiful, sophisticated and related tones arising from this exercise. Another way to mothercolour is to glaze it with a transparent wash. Burnt sienna and Phthalo blue are two good mothers. One is a warm mother, the other a cool mother.



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Van Gogh straight from the tube
by Tatjana Mirkov-Popovicki, Port Moody, BC, Canada


Talking about outrageous wet-into-wet impasto, I just read this in Van Gogh's letters: Snow Over Vancouver<br>acrylic painting by Tatjana Mirkov-Popovicki Snow Over Vancouver
acrylic painting


"...Painting it was hard graft. There are one and a half large tubes of white in the ground — yet that ground is very dark — in addition red, yellow, brown ochre, black, terra sienna, bistre, and the result is a red-brown that varies from bistre to deep wine-red and to pale, blond reddish...

I was struck by how firmly the slender trunks stood in the ground — I began them using a brush, but because of the ground, which was already impasted, one brushstroke simply disappeared. Then I squeezed roots and trunks into it from the tube, and modelled them a little with the brush. Yes, now they stand in it — shoot up out of it — stand firmly rooted in it. In a sense I'm glad that I've never learned how to paint."

This was written in September 1882, a couple of months into his first plein air oils.



There are 3 comments for Van Gogh straight from the tube by Tatjana Mirkov-Popovicki

From: Laurell -- Mar 28, 2012

Your painting has compelling mirroring and lovely perspective - well done!

From: Judy Gosz -- Mar 29, 2012

Lovely . . .I can feel the spring winds blowing!

From: Tatjana -- Apr 02, 2012

Thanks very much ladies!


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Wet-into-wet requires the 'zone'
by Michael Epp, Vancouver, BC, Canada


'Wet into wet' — just the expression makes me drool in anticipation of the painterly delight to be had. Joldine in our backyard <br>original painting by Michael Epp Joldine in our backyard
original painting
You are right, though, when you say that above-average skill in handling is required; I have fallen into the mud on many an occasion. Face first. Wet-into-wet works best when you are in the zone, the angels are singing, and you can do no wrong. After you have sweated blood to get there, in other words.



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Accidents for visual joy
by Bev Willis, Fresno, CA, USA


I am a watercolorist and that is one thing of many that truly interests me the way the wet into the wet reacts with watercolor - often what comes out by accident is a lot better than what I had planned. Even reading about this wet-into-wet makes me want to get back to painting again. My husband died in December and I am having lots to do to get things in order again and of course miss him so much. Watercoloring would help me if I could just get back at it.

(RG note) Thanks, Bev. Our condolences to you for the loss of your husband. You might consider regrouping with simple exercises. Make a pile of wet-into-wet blends on scraps of paper. Happy accidents will attract your attention. So absorbed, you will begin to lose your feelings of loss. Greater, more complex projects will emerge. "There's nothing to it but to do it." At times like this it's easier said than done, but it is nevertheless often done.



There are 2 comments for Accidents for visual joy by Bev Willis

From: Elle Fagan -- Mar 28, 2012

I had a problem getting to my art when suddenly widowed as well. I'd been taught as a girl that it was a bad idea to try to make art when in deep sorrow or anger..NOT creative. Rather go run around the block and cheer up first, and then find the good place and let the easel ease you along to healing and improvements.

From: Gerri -- Jun 13, 2012

My dad was an architect and painter. He was my inspiration to take up watercolors a few years back. I truly treasured the conversations I had with him about techniques and also his advice. He passed away in 2010, and I couldn't bring myself back into my studio. I guess I was thinking, what's the point... I can't share my art with him anymore. I sat down at my easel several times, and couldn't seem to find the inspiration. About a year later, I sat at my easel yet again, and it was as if he was telling me that it was okay. I picked up my brush again, with a feeling of peace and happiness... and I haven't put it down yet :)


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Paintings call what to do, when
by Dyan Law, Pipersville, PA, USA


Like children waiting their turn for attention I'm working two large canvases simultaneously. I work Model Prone Under Light <br>pastel sketch by Dyan Law Model Prone Under Light
pastel sketch
my oils and sometimes acrylics wet-into-wet during certain stages of the painting... usually the earlier ones. However, then I'm compelled to slow down my process, allowing for drying-time. Only then am I ready to charge onward creating glowing and/or dulling of particular areas within the subject. I've been glazing and scumbling well before I learned they had actual names! While one portrait is drying sufficiently, I turn to the other canvas for its time of "attention"! I don't attempt to give equal time to these canvases because painting can be orchestrated just so much. One needs to allow for lucky accidents and spontaneity which happens despite careful planning. I oil-up, dry, smear, scumble, glaze, scrape and knife wet-into-wet, wet-onto-dry. Whether one is a contemporary abstract painter, impressionist or representational painter, I'm a proponent of being flexible as to using slow or fast-drying paint as standard operation.

The only thing standard about painting is staying focused on what the painting is "calling" me to do and when! A humbling task for sure!



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Tribute to a wet-into-wet
by Brenda Jacobsen, CT, USA


Last weekend I painted 3 small seascapes — thank-you gifts for teachers. Working wet-into-wet for me this St Lynda's Bay <br>oil painting by Brenda Jacobsen St Lynda's Bay
oil painting
past week has been particularly rewarding. Taking time to mix the paint color on the palette and putting it on the canvas, then moving it around (without overworking) in a sensitive fashion, holding back and letting go with the brush — these are all components of this process and my daily challenge as an oil painter. Plein air painting forces me to work this way because the light and weather is always changing and complex. Paintings are far more interesting to view when they aren't easy to copy. Wet-into-wet paintings I think are hard to copy. Another piece of advice you once shared. Working wet-into-wet allows for an element of surprise for the painter and the spectator. I am much happier with my most recent seascapes and Cake painting than even others I completed a few weeks ago. Your letter and teaching moment from Sargent only spur me on to keep exploring the process of painting in this manner. I can't help believe that the satisfaction I am seeing from this wet-into-wet process is what the teacher is describing when she emailed two days ago, a thank- you note for the painting... (Believe me I am not trying to puff myself up here — I am on page 3 of a 1000 page novel as you said before as well!) But her comment to me means a lot.

"When I got home, I sat in front of it for a long time, taking in the colors, the calm, the stillness of the marsh. I love it, Brenda. I really do. Your work has already brought a wonderful peacefulness into my home."



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Wet-in-wet in watercolor
by Paul Taylor, Rochester, NY, USA


Naturally, the watercolorists saw your "wet-in-wet" and instantly thought there might be something in it Lures #1 <br>watercolour painting by Paul Taylor Lures #1
watercolour painting
for them. Not to take away from the Oil and Acrylic painters, but there is some common ground with wet-in-wet for watercolor just as in the latter.

By wet-in-wet I speak of painting with watercolor onto or "into" watercolor paper that has been saturated (filled with water). This wet to damp environment will slow the drying time. One of the cumbersome and frustrating issues with watercolor can be the thirsty sponge called "paper." It doesn't take long for water to be absorbed and then dried with bone dry paper.

Undesirable edges, blossoms and frustrating moments for mixing and blending occur. It's bad enough that watercolor requires multiple brain functions to accomplish a painting. Wet paper lets the brain study the tasks at hand without confusion.

Soaking the paper either with multiple washes of water by brush on the front and back, letting it stand in shallow water for about 5 minutes or by any other means takes the thirst out of the paper. The "medium" as I call it (or water) for the most part now resides in the paper. One intermediate preparation I use via Frank Webb, is to roll a clean towel over the surface to take some of the sloppy surface water away but not dry it. No, I don't concern myself with loss of sizing nor do I waste time stapling and taping the paper. Four bulldog clips (one in each corner) hold the paper just fine as it begins to dry.

The application of pasty consistency paint into this wet paper allows mixing to occur as the paint and water flow naturally seeking the drier parts of the paper. Repeated blending, scraping through colors, softening edges etc are all more easily accomplished as the paper has not dried, thus paint has not dried. If more flow is desired, add a touch of water to the brush. Note: The paint cannot be dried hard in the palette. It has to be tube consistency.

Colors are more saturated, brighter and less flat than working on that dastardly dry paper. Harder or rougher edges are accomplished by drawing water away from a region with paper towels, leaving larger areas still moist.

For me, it's the best way to work watercolor. I highly recommend it for beginners as well.



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Storage of paintings
by Danielle Zaikoff, Montreal, PQ, Canada


Thank you for addressing the question of protecting the paintings in your previous letter. Your letters are always interesting and full of useful information. Now I would like your advice or that of other members of the Art community on how to store acrylic paintings. (I haven't been with a gallery in the past few years and I have a large number of paintings, 30 x 30 inches or more, stored in the basement). I wrap them to prevent dust seeping in while in storage. I have written paint manufacturers and asked some art teachers but none came with a definite answer. Can an acrylic painting be wrapped in normal brown paper or can the acidity affect the painting over time? Can it be wrapped in a plastic sheet or is there a risk of sticking over time? Could a painting be stored in a non-heated space, such as a shed, considering our Canadian climate in Montreal, and thus be exposed to a wide range of temperature variations over the year.

(RG note) Thanks, Danielle. I've never seen a problem when paintings are wrapped in brown paper — even after a decade. Many galleries do it. Film or "vapor barrier" plastic is best and has the advantage of visibility. Wrap it tight and seal it with shipping tape. I've never had plastics stick to acrylics while stacked vertically. Garden sheds and unheated outbuildings in alternately hot and cold, moist and dry climates are not good. The relatively stable temperature of a basement or attic is better. In my experience, moisture and bugs are the biggest problems. Canvas, particularly, deteriorates when subjected to ongoing moisture. Mildew sets in and aids the decay. A small beetle I call Buggus arteatus eats the size or glue in canvas. I think it's the same little bugger that eats books, leaving areas that look like Swiss cheese. Some eat whole libraries and become very smart. If you have carpenter ants or termites in your home, keep an eye on your stretchers or wooden panels. These pests particularly like pine. If you truly treasure your stored paintings you should spray around the storage area at least twice a year with Raid (an aerosol house and garden bug killer).



There are 6 comments for Storage of paintings by Danielle Zaikoff

From: Win Dinn -- Mar 27, 2012

RG, your sense of humour delights me - Buggus arteatus, indeed! Keep 'em coming and I'll keep laughing.

From: Pamela Sweet -- Mar 27, 2012

I am still laughing! Buggus art - eat - us, I am buying Raid today, so watch out.

From: Sylvia -- Mar 27, 2012

Please inform any future clients that you have sprayed with a toxic, environmentally unfriendly chemical. I, for one, would never buy a painting that has been subjected to a potentially carcinogenic substance. There are far friendlier options that are effective in discouraging insects.

From: Anonymous -- Mar 27, 2012

Some people can be more toxic than chemicals

From: Elle Fagan -- Mar 28, 2012

I opt for brown paper. Even if some disaster makes it adhere, one can sponge it wet and roll it off the artwork, but with plastic the art is ruined because the plastic , once stuck or melted on the art , cannot be lifte

I always frame or box my art so that nothing will touch the finished work, except when I am delivering a thing to be hung or otherwise used immediately, so there is no danger of paper or plastic bagging sticking to the artwork.

From: Tatjana -- Mar 29, 2012

I once had surface of a varnished acrylic painting stuck to a wax paper that was used to wrap it. This never happened with brown paper or plastic wrap. I have also noticed that bubble wrap (pressed directly against a painting) can leave circular marks on the surface, although that's easy to fix with a layer of varnish.


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Michael Chesley Johnson workshops  <a href='http://clicks.robertgenn.com/workshops/workshop.php'>The Workshop Calendar</a> provides up-to-date selected workshops and seminars arranged in chronological order. Please take a look <a href='http://clicks.robertgenn.com/workshops/workshop.php'>here</a>.
Michael Chesley Johnson workshops

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Archived Comments

Enjoy the past comments below for Wet-into-wet...

From: Bianka Guna -- Mar 22, 2012

I am a water media painter, and Golden Fluid Acrylics( not on their payroll either) , are my first choice for more than a decade. Painting for mainly years Watercolour and thin oils ,made a great transition to the fluid acrylics.
This medium is my choice over any other one, it can be used transparent and thick , on it's own or in mixed media , simply the greatest .

From: Marvin Humphrey -- Mar 22, 2012

Thanks for quoting Titian and Sargent. What worked for them still holds true today. I find that traditional materials work best; stand linseed oil works magic. Frans Hals' paintings still appear as if they were painted last week.

From: Doug Mays -- Mar 23, 2012

If Sargent said it, then it is so.

From: Anon -- Mar 23, 2012

I know some people don't like hearing these names, but Bill Alexander introduced Bob Ross and Robert Warren to the technique, and among the three of them, they probably taught it to more people than are willing to admit to it. They each had instructional television shows, and usually knocked out a painting in about 1/2 hour.

From: Victoria -- Mar 24, 2012

This may be true to our modern way of thinking but what about all those wonderful egg tempera paintings, like Botticelli? I saw his painting in the El Paso Texas Museum of Art and was blown away, changed my whole way of thinking and my painting process! When you look at an egg tempera painting it doesn't look wet so much but you are drawn in by the master strokes one over the other and what the finished completed work shows when you step back is too much for words to share. It has been the only painting I've ever stopped and studied for over 30 mins, all the wet ones were great but did not draw me in as much as this Botticelli!

From: DM -- Mar 24, 2012

If you really want to get into egg tempera, you should check out the artist, Lind Paul. She goes so far as to mine her own pigments in the Rocky Mountains, and gets others from historic paint mines in Rousillon, France. Her web site is -- what else would it be ? -- lindapaul.com/index.htm

From: Dwight -- Mar 24, 2012

I've said it before and I must keep repeating: If wet-in-wet is important then why not go to the place where it is easiest, wonderful and the most fun? WATERCOLOR! Robert does finally mention it near the bottom of this letter. Well, it's not a young ladies keep-your-hands-busy pastime any more.

From: Patricia Pope -- Mar 24, 2012

Love this tip about wet-in-wet as 'me thinks, I am a bit miserly when I use paints. That saying, 'Waste not, want not,' just won't leave me, but I'm going to try to be freer. Thanks, Robert

From: Elaine Willett-Smith -- Mar 26, 2012

I love the innuendo of your letters Robert. I always read them twice for full understanding.

From: Jo-Anne Gazo-McKim -- Mar 26, 2012

Thanks Robert for the great techniques for extending the drying time of acrylic paints. I want to get a more painterly and less contrived look to my work and the methods you have suggested are ones that I intend to give a try. I enjoy reading your letters.

From: Mike Stocker -- Mar 26, 2012

I think there are two schools of thought when it comes to landscape painting. On the one hand you have the school who paints what they see, on the other is the take what you see and adjust it to create a more personal expression.

Landscape painters understand that you must adjust the composition of the scene as it stands, to create an interesting balanced composition, but few will do the same with colour. They paint what they see, hoping to capture nature in the process, and some do a very convincing job of it.

I myself have struggled with the two schools of thought. I want my paintings to look 'real', but I want creative, artistic, and interesting paintings not copies of nature that anybody could see for themselves.

I think colour remains a mystery. No serious landscape painter would just copy his composition from nature, but most do just that for their colour. The book 'Composition of Outdoor Painting' - Edgar Payne, lays out a comprehensive study for composition, but the comprehensive book 'Colour in Outdoor Painting' has yet to be written. Stephen Quiller comes close with his books 'Painter's Guide to Colour' and Colour Choices', but I still feel something is missing.

I'd be interested to hear your take on the invention of colour in landscape painting.

--

From: Barbara Fox -- Mar 26, 2012

As an oil painter, this letter spoke to me. I think wet on wet is just plain delicious--to paint and to look at. I rarely use acrylics, mostly for underpainting, but now that I know about Open Medium I may try that. I can't imagine though that it could ever, ever replace my beloved oils. Thank you for that delightful letter.

From: Pene Horton -- Mar 26, 2012

I have been using Pebeo oils and I use their titanium white which leaves a bright, unwanted shine that glows when a light shines on it … is there a way to get rid of the too bright shine? It is annoying. I used to use flake white a long time ago, but stopped because it turned yellowish with age … don’t know if it still has lead in it either. I use a knife mostly, and that aggravates the problem of the shine.

From: Pat Merriman -- Mar 26, 2012

Delightful reminders You can also use GAC 800,Tar Gel and Self Leveling Gel for wondrous acrylics...see Nancy Reyner's latest blog. and she does work with Golden for 30 years.

From: Kate Beetle -- Mar 26, 2012

Interesting technical discussions lately, many thanks! I wanted to get back to oils from watercolor because of the richness of color and the way oils handle. I was frustrated by the drying time, but did not like the stickiness of some of the drying mediums. Since we're allowed to "name names" I'll note Gamblin's Galkyd Slow Dry. Mixed 50/50 with paint, as per instructions, it starts quite wet but quickly sets up to a buttery consistency. It stays open for the length of my daily painting session but is ready to be painted over the next day if desired. I tend to start with a rather thin, dry layer, work into it immediately with somewhat thicker paint, and then go back in with wetter paint for details later, especially in still life--flower petals, stems and so on. These are ready to be varnished with Gamvar within a few days of finishing if necessary. The Gamvar is clear and very light; it lifts easily with OMS for reworking. The only problem here is the ability to get paintings out too fast (need consideration). All these products are very low odor, including the Gamsol; I have allergies/asthma & zero problems. Their other mediums can be modified to suit different techniques.

From: Marsha Hamby Savage -- Mar 27, 2012

This will be a letter (and comments) that I think I need to mark and come back to often. Thank you for one that is about techniques. I love wet-into-wet. Most of my oil paintings are completed in one sitting... with the dots and dashes maybe on another day after a few days of contemplation!

It does have problems if as an artist you are still unsure with strokes. With oil paint, you have the time to be a little more sure... as you back away and contemplate the next strokes. With acrylic, it just does not work. I have used Interactive Acrylic which is one of the open acrylics. I did some beautiful paintings with this one. Then Golden Open came out, and I bought them. I have not had success with these. It drove me crazy how thin the paint was. I guess I need to try the Interactive again... but it made me go back to my oil paint! I am also a pastel painter about half the time.

The discussion on color above in a comment ... I always work with the idea that I don't copy the color I see, I use what I think will make the work believeable, but somewhat more colorful. I call myself a colorist with tonalist basics. Why not make it a more engaging painting with colors that make the viewer enchanted or engaged in some way? Thanks, Robert!

From: Kari Feuer -- Mar 27, 2012

I paint landscapes in oils with palette knives. I love wet into wet because it leads to the happy accidents in edges and color. I used to be way too literal while painting outdoors, and now find that I'm able to be more inventive working in the studio from sketches and photos. Sometimes just laying a dab of a whacky color into a passage (like some grass color into the clouds) and working it wet into wet creates a color that I could never dream up and mix on my palette!






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